Sunday, March 10, 2019

What’s next for Registered Reports? Selective summary of a meeting (7.3.2019)

Last week, I attended a meeting about Registered Reports. It was a great opportunity, not only to discuss Registered Reports, but also to meet some people whom I had previously only known from twitter, over a glass of Whiskey close to London Bridge.

The meeting felt very productive, and I took away a lot of new information, about the Registered Report Format in general, and also some specific things that will be useful to me when I submit my next Registered Report. Here, I don’t aim to summarise everything that was discussed, but to focus on those aspects that could be of practical importance to individual researchers.

What’s stopping researchers from submitting Registered Reports?
We dedicated the entire morning to discussing how to increase the submission rate of Registered Reports. Before the meeting, I had done an informal survey among colleagues and on twitter to see what reasons people had for not submitting Registered Reports. The response rate was pretty low, suggesting that a lack of interest may be a leading factor (due either to apathy or scepticism – from my informal survey, I can’t tell). From people who did respond, the main reason was time: often, especially younger researchers are on short-term contracts (1-3 years), and are pressured for various reasons to start data collection as soon as possible. Among such reasons, people mentioned grants: funders often expect strict adherence to a timeline. And, unfortunately, such timing pressures disproportionately affect earlier career researchers, exactly the demographic which is most open to trying out a new way of conducting and publishing research.

Submitting a Registered Report may take a while – there is no point sugar-coating this. In contrast to standard studies, authors of Registered Reports need to spend more time to plan the study, because writing the report involves planning in detail; there may be several rounds of review before in-principle acceptance, and addressing reviewers’ comments may involve collecting pilot data. Given my limited experience, I would estimate that about 6-9 months would need to be added to the study timeline before one can count with in-principle acceptance and data collection can be started.

Of course, the increase in time that you spend before conducting the experiment will substantially improve the quality of the paper. A Registered Report is very likely to cut a lot of time at the end of the research cycle: when realising how long it may take to get in-principle acceptance, you should always bear in mind the painstakingly slow and frustrating process of submitting a paper to one journal after the other, accumulating piles of reviews varying in constructiveness and politeness, being told about methodological flaws that now you can’t fix, about how your results should have been different, and eventually unceremoniously throwing the study which you started with such great enthusiasm into the file-drawer.

Long-term benefits aside, unfortunately the issue of time remains for researchers on short-term contracts and with grant pressures. We could not think of any quick fix to this problem. In the long term, solutions may involve planning in this time when you write your next grant application. One possibility could be to write that you plan to conduct a systematic review during the time that you wait for in-principle acceptance. In my recently approved grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, I proposed two studies: for the first study, I optimistically included a period of three months for “pre-registration and set-up”, and for the second study a period of twelve months (because this would happen in parallel to data collection for the first study). This somewhat backfired, because, while the grant was approved, they cut 6 months from my proposed timeline because they considered 12 months to be way too long for “pre-registration and set-up”. So, the strategy of planning for registered reports in grant applications may work, but bear in mind that it’s not risk-free.

A new thing that I learned about during the meeting are Registered Report Research Grants: Here, journals pair up with funding agencies, and reviews of the Registered Report happens in parallel to the review of the funding proposal. This way, once in-principle acceptance is in, the funding is released and data collection can start. This sounds like an amazingly efficient win-win-win solution, and I sincerely hope that funding agencies will routinely offer such grants.

How to encourage researchers to publish Registered Reports?
Here, I’ll list a few bits and pieces that were suggested as solutions. Some of these are aimed at the individual researcher, though many would require some top-down changes. The demographic most happy to try out a new publication system, as mentioned above, are likely to be early-career researchers, especially PhD students.

Members at the meeting reported positive experiences with department-driven working groups, such as the ReproducibiliTea initiative or Open Science Cafés. In some departments, such working groups have led to PhD students taking the initiative and proposing to their advisors that they would like to do their next study as a Registered Report. We discussed that encouraging PhD students to publish one study as a Registered Report could be a good recommendation. For departments which have formal requirements about the number of publications that are needed in order to graduate, a Registered Report could count more than a standard publication: let’s say, they either need to publish three standard papers, or one standard paper and a Registered Report (or two Registered Reports).

Deciding to publish a Registered Report is like jumping into cold water: the format requires some pretty big changes in the way that a study is conducted, and one is unsure if it will really impress practically important people (such as potential employers or grant reviewers) over pumping out standard publications. Taking a step back, taking a deep breath and thinking about the pros and cons, I would say that, in many cases, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Yes, the planning stage may take longer, but you will cut time at the end,  during the publication process, with a much higher success that the study will be published. A fun fact I learned during the meeting: At the journal Cortex, once a Registered Report gets past the editorial desk (i.e., the editors established that the paper fits the scope of the journal), the rejection rate is only 10% (which is why we need more journals adopting the Registered Report format: this way, any paper, including those of interest to a specialised audience, will be able to find a good home). And, once you have in-principle acceptance, you can list the paper in on your CV, which is (to many professors) much more impressive than a list of "in preparation"/"submitted" publications. If the Stage 1 review process takes unusually long and you're running out of time in your contract, you can withdraw the Registered Report, incorporate the comments to date, and conduct the experiment as a Preregistered Study. 

Some of the suggestions listed above are aimed at individual researchers. The meeting was encouraging and helpful in terms of getting some suggestions that could be applied here and now. It also made it clear that top-down changes are required: the Registered Report format involves a different timeline compared to standard submissions, so university expectations (e.g., in terms of the required number of publications for PhD students, short-term post-doc contracts) and funding structures need to be changed.

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